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Library and Learning Centre
Te Whare Pukapuka Wāhanga Whakapakari Ako

CRAAP Method of evaluation

The CRAAP method is well known as an evaluation method (See the video below). However, with the ever changing landscape of information, including the increase of mis/disinformation, we recommend not relying solely on CRAAP but to use it in combination with lateral reading.

C - Currency.

Do you need current information? Consider when the work was published or created.

R - Relevance.

How effective is the information for your needs? Is it on your topic? Who is the intended audience? Are there better resources you could use? Is it of an appropriate level, e.g. are you required to use ‘scholarly articles’? 

A - Authority.

Authority relates to author. Who wrote it, or who is the publisher, source or sponsor of the information? Do you know? Are they an expert in the field? How can you tell? (see our info on lateral reading).

A - Accuracy.

This relates to the reliability and correctness of the information. Is the information supported by evidence? Is it backed up by other sources? Have you checked? Does the language and tone seem  unbiased and free of emtotion? Consider spelling and grammar.

P - Purpose.

Why has the information been produced? Is it to inform, educate, sell, persuade? Can you tell? Have you checked if other sources back up the information? Do the authors make their intentions clear? Does the information appear objective and impartial?

WH questions:

Acronyms don't work for everyone! You may prefer to use WH questions instead of CRAAP, which fulfill the same purpose:
When was it written? What is it about? Who wrote it? How accurate/factual is it? Why has it been written?

Watch the video below to learn more about CRAAP. Then return to Evaluating Sources to learn about lateral reading.