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Referencing AI generated content

Current advice from the American Psychological Association (APA) is as follows:

Reference use of AI as an algorithm output, e.g.:

References list entry:

OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large language model].

In-text citation:

_____ (OpenAI, 2023).

The above uses ChatGPT as the example. But you can apply this to any AI tool using the following criteria:

Author: the author of the model. In the case of ChatGPT, this is OpenAI, but it could be a different model author, e.g. Midjourney (an AI image generator).

Date: use the year of the version you used.

Title: the name of the model, e.g ChatGPT, DALL-E, AlphaCode, Rytr.

Version number: include this after the title in parentheses. This may be a date (in the case of OpenAI) or a version number, (e.g., Version 2.0) or some other format depending on the model used.

Bracketed text: provide a descriptor describing the type of model to your reader. This goes in square brackets after the title and version, e.g. [Large language model] or [large multimodal model]. This will depend on how the model publishers describe their particular model.  

Source: This will usually be the URL to the page where you can access the model, e.g.

Timothy McAdoo, from APA, says:

You may also put the full text of long responses from ChatGPT in an appendix of your paper … so readers have access to the exact text that was generated… remember that an appendix should be called out at least once in the body of your APA Style paper (2023).

McAdoo (2023) gives the following example:

When given a follow-up prompt of “What is a more accurate representation?” the ChatGPT-generated text indicated that “different brain regions work together to support various cognitive processes” and “the functional specialization of different regions can change in response to experience and environmental factors” (OpenAI, 2023; see Appendix A for the full transcript).

A.I. Archives

An alternative to using an Appendix is to use A.I. Archives: This is a Chrome extension that lets you share a link to your full chat, which makes it retrievable by others.
A.I. Archives "allows you to share your Claude, Bard, and ChatGPT conversations via URL" (A. I. Archives, 2023, para. 1).

For those who are interested, you can read Timothy McAdoo’s full article here: How to cite ChatGPT 


McAdoo, T. (2023, April 7). How to cite ChatGPT. APA Style.

A. I. Archives. (n.d.). A.I. Archives: Share ChatGPT & Bard convos. Chrome Web Store. Retrieved 17 November, 2023 at…

Last updated 17 November, 2023